Basic fabric knowledge/knitting and weaving

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The yarns of two systems (or directions) are perpendicular to each other and interweave according to certain rules. The fabric formed is woven fabric (also called woven fabric).

The yarns of two systems (or directions) are perpendicular to each other and interweave according to certain rules. The fabric formed is woven fabric (also called woven fabric).

Woven fabric

The basic organization of woven fabric is the simple and basic organization among all kinds of organizations, which is the basis of various changes and fancy organizations. The basic structure consists of plain, twill and satin.

Plain Weave

The plain weave is the simplest of all fabric structures. The law of its organization is one up and one down, and the two roots alternately become a complete organization.

Features plain weave warp and weft yarn interweaving points, yarn flexion, so its fabric spread flat, body bone crisp, hard texture, close appearance, but feel hard, elastic small. In practice, according to different requirements, various methods are adopted, such as the different thickness of warp and weft yarn, the change of warp and weft yarn density, and the different collocation and configuration of twist, twist direction and color, etc., to obtain various special appearance effects.

Plain weave fabric is widely used in cotton, wool, silk, hemp fabrics, such as a variety of cloth flat flat cloth, fine texture of the spinning class, clear diamond shaped particles of poplin, showing obvious concave and convex transverse stripe appearance of four ro satin, crepe effect of seersucker and georgette, as well as hidden lattice effect of the versine, pais, thin tweed, flannel, etc.

Twill Weave

The characteristic of twill is that it is arranged in steps to form continuous diagonal lines on the surface of the fabric. The movement of each warp is the same, but the starting point is different

Characteristic twill structure has warp, weft and double - sided twill. On the surface of the fabric, if the warp points account for the majority, such as 2/1, it is the warp twill; on the contrary, if the weft points account for the majority, such as 1/3, it is the weft twill. On the opposite side of the warp twill, the weft twill is the weft twill, but the skew is opposite. The proportions of the two kinds of weave points on the positive and negative sides are the same, but the skew is opposite. The inclination degree of the twill line is also different. The twill organization is represented by the intersection Angle of the twill line and the horizontal line a. With the increase of a, the greater the warp density, the steeper the diagonal line. Eg. 450 twill for sharp twill,a< 450 is a mild twill, and a=450 marks the equal warp and weft density of the fabric.The twill fabric is softer and thicker than the plain weave, and the luster is better, but the fastness is not as good as the plain weave fabric. The twill line on the surface can be clear and obvious or the grain can be full and prominent, uniform and straight according to the ratio of twist direction and warp and weft density.

Common twill weave flat cloth, serge, tribute prominent khaki, gabardine, etc

Satin Weave

Satin weave is one of the most basic and complex structures. It is characterized by the fact that there is only one single weave point(warp weave point or weft weave point) on each warp yarn(or weft yarn),and there is a certain distance between the single weave points on two adjacent yarns,which are covered by warp float or weft float on both sides, so that the surface of the fabric is almost composed of one kind of warp float or weft float. Therefore,the cloth surface is smotth and uniform, with good luster and soft texture

The common satin weave fabric has a wide range of applications. In cotton and wool fabrics, five satin fabrics are used to obtain vertical tribute, horizontal tribute and horizontal tribute satin, etc. In silk fabrics, eight satin fabrics are used to obtain a variety of plain satin, damask and satin brocade fabrics with good luster

Dervative Stitch

Variation structure is a variety of derived structure obtained by changing (such as changing yarn cycle number, float length, fly number, twill line direction, etc.) on the basis of the original structure. The changing fabric can be divided into three categories: plain fabric (including heavy flat fabric, square fabric, etc.), twill fabric (including reinforced twill, compound twill, Angle twill, diamond twill, reed mat twill, etc.), satin fabric (including reinforced satin fabric, variable satin fabric, etc.).

Plain weave fabric, some of the appearance of convex stripe effect, mostly used to design poplin, hemp yarn, rob, etc., some of the appearance is smooth, feel soft elastic, good luster, often used as fabric fabric, screen. Twill change the appearance of tissue presents a variety of twill effects, some display multiple twill parallel, some Yin and Yang, and some show the shape of herringbone, reed mat, because it is widely used in cotton, wool, silk, chemical fiber and other fabrics design. Compared with satin weave fabric, satin weave fabric is more random and free in design, so it has been widely used, such as satin strip, satin check fabric, woolen cloth, lady's cloth and other fabrics.

Associations and other complex organizations

Joint organization is a new organization formed by the combination of two or more kinds of organizations (original organization or change organization) with different methods, which is called joint organization. The surface of joint organization has special appearance effect, and the common ones are as follows: Lattice structure, perforated structure, mesh structure, convex organization, bee group organization, crepe organization,which are widely used in clothing and decorative fabrics.

Complex organization refers to the fact that at least one of the warp and weft yarns consists of two or more systems of yarns. This kind of structure can increase the thickness of the fabric and the surface is compact, improve the wear resistance of the fabric and the texture is soft, or get some special properties. According to the different tissue structure, it can be divided into double tissue, double tissue, hair tissue, towel tissue, gauze tissue and so on. They are widely used in autumn and winter clothing, decorative cloth (bed blanket, chair cushion) and industrial cloth.

Knitted fabric

Knitted fabrics are formed differently from woven fabrics. According to the different production methods, knitted fabrics can be divided into weft knitted fabrics and warp knitted fabrics. Weft knitted fabric is the yarn from the weft into the knitting machine working needle, each yarn in a certain order in a horizontal row to form a coil knitted fabric, warp knitted fabric is a group or several groups of parallel arranged warp yarn in the warp feed into the knitting machine all the working needle circle formed, each yarn in each coil row to form a coil. No matter what kind of knitted fabric, its coil is the basic building block. The mechanism of the coil is different, and the combination of the coil is different, which constitutes a variety of different knitted fabrics, including the basic fabric, the change fabric and the pattern fabric.

Weft knitted fabric

Basic stitch

Weft plain stitch:the simple structure of knitted fabric, consists of a continuous unit of coils in one direction to each other, as shown in the lower left figure, forming different appearances on the front and back of the fabric. The tissue is large in transverse extension, but easy to roll and loose, widely used in underwear, outerwear and various types of socks.

Rib stitch is a kind of double-sided organization,composed of the positive and negative longitudinal coil combination configuration,according to the number of positive and negative longitudinal coil configuration,different names and performance rib organization. The rib organization has good elasticity,and it is mostly used in all kinds of underwear products and clothing parts requiring stretch(such as the hem,cuff and neckline of clothes and elastic shirt,etc..)

Purl stitch double and reverse organization is also called 'pearl knitting', as shown in the lower left figure. It is composed of the front and back winding horizontal rows alternating with each other. It can be combined in different ways to form concave and convex stripes or patterns. The organization has similar characteristics of longitudinal and transverse elongation and elasticity. It is mostly used in sweaters, sweatershirts or children's clothes and other forming products.

Derivative Stitch

Variable organization is formed by longitudinal rows of coils with another or several basic tissues between adjacent coils of one basic tissue, such as commonly used double rib tissue. Double rib organization, also known as double reverse organization, is composed of two rib organizations compounded with each other, forming the same appearance of the positive coil on the front and back of the fabric. Widely used in underwear and sportswear.

Fancy Stitch

Weft knitted fabrics have various patterns and patterns. They are formed by weaving coils of different structures with various yarns according to certain rules on the basis of basic organization or changing organization, such as padding stitch, collecting circle stitch, pineapple stitch, racked stitch, plush stitch, etc. These organizations are widely used in outerwear, towels, blankets, children's wear and sportswear.

Warp-Knitted Fabric

Basic stitch

The Asic stitch of warp-knitted fabrics include chain stitch, tricot stitch and satin tricot stitch

Chain stitich :Each yarn is always on the same needle cushion yarn into a circle organization Chain stitich, the coil formed by each warp has no connection between the longitudinal line, there are two kinds of opening and closing, because the longitudinal stretch is small, and not easy to roll, long as shirt cloth, garment cloth and other less extended fabric, lace curtain and other products of the basic organization.

Tricot stitch:Each warp takes turns to pad the yarn on two adjacent needles, and each coil longitudinals by adjacent warp turns to pad the yarn into a circle, consisting of two horizontal rows to form a complete organization. This kind of fabric has a certain longitudinal and transverse extension, and the curling is not significant, often combined with other tissues used in inner, outer, shirt and other knitted fabrics.

Derivative Stitch and others

In addition to the above organizations in warp knitted fabrics, there are warp fleece, warp skew and other needed organizations, which have a wide range of applications in underwear, outerwear, sweater and other aspects.

Anti-slip of woven fabric & anti-needle hole of knitted fabric

Seam slip is generally only used for testing woven fabrics. It refers to the force used to stretch a certain seam opening at a constant rate or the opening distance when stretched to a certain strength by the tensile strength instrument after folding a fabric of a certain size, sewing the seam along the width direction and cutting it at a certain distance from the seam, which is the seam slip measured by us. There are two ways of measuring joint slip: fixed opening force measurement and fixed opening force measurement. The specific test method can be selected according to different test standards and customer requirements.

The needle hole of knitted fabric is the needle telling in the sewing process of the needle fabric, the coil of the fabric punctured when running, so that the yarn breaks, the needle hole expands, resulting in the coil disassembly, the phenomenon of holes in the sewing line, these small holes are easy to expand under the external action, resulting in the deterioration of the fastness of the product stitching agent, seriously affecting the appearance quality of the garment.

The anti-slip of woven fabric and anti-needle hole of knitting can be improved by additives. The principle is to reduce the slip of warp and weft of woven fabric and the generation of needle holes in the process of knitting by increasing the holding force between fibers and yarns.